Saturday, March 14, 2020

Juvenile Delinquency and Corrections

Juvenile Delinquency and Corrections Free Online Research Papers Juvenile Delinquency and Corrections (Gender, Race, Ethics, and Class) Youth crime is disproportionately, committed by young men. Feminist theorists and others have examined why this is the case. One suggestion is that ideas of masculinity may make young men more likely to offend. Being tough, powerful, aggressive, daring and competitive may be a way of young men expressing their masculinity. Acting out these ideals may make young men more likely to engage in antisocial and criminal behavior. Alternatively, rather than young men acting as they do because of societal pressure to conform to masculine ideals; young men may actually be naturally more aggressive, daring etc. As well as biological or psychological factors, the way young men are treated by their parents may make them more susceptible to offending. According to a study led by Florida State University criminologist Kevin M. Beaver, adolescent males who possess a certain type of variation in a specific gene are more likely to flock to delinquent peers (Wikipedia, 2008). Strain Theory is associated mainly with the work of Robert Merton. He felt that there are institutionalized paths to success in society. Strain theory holds that crime is caused by the difficulty those in poverty have in achieving socially valued goals by legitimate means. As those with, for instance, poor educational attainment have difficulty achieving wealth and status by securing well paid employment, they are more likely to use criminal means to obtain these goals. Mertons suggests five adaptations to this dilemma: Innovation: individuals who accept socially approved goals, but not necessarily the socially approved means. Retreatism: those who reject socially approved goals and the means for acquiring them. Ritualism: those who buy into a system of socially approved means, but lose sight of the goals. Merton believed that drug users are in this category. Conformity: those who conform to the systems means and goals. Rebellion: people who negate socially approved goals and means by creating a new system of acceptable goals and means. A difficulty with strain theory is that it does not explore why children of low-income families would have poor educational attainment in the first place. More importantly is the fact that much youth crime does not have an economic motivation. Strain theory fails to explain violent crime, the type of youth crime which causes most anxiety to the public (Wikipedia, 2008). For decades psychologists have studied morality, moral development, and how people become troubled. Lawrence Kohlberg, a Harvard psychologist, labeled the moral development of human beings from the early infant years to late adulthood. Hartshorne and May, conducting one of the early studies in the late 1920’s, evaluated the influence of religion, education, and society on young children. The one test used in the early prediction of troubled youth is the Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) assessment. This test helps identify personal, social, and behavioral problems in adolescents. Although MMPI-A test helps provide relevant information to aid in problem identification, it is a very extensive test and takes several hours to complete. With such incidents as the Columbine tragedy, school shootings, and the increasing number of incarcerated youth, people are searching for a way to target these troubled teens before they commit serious crimes to offer them counseling and support. In â€Å"Ethics and Teens: Is It Possible To Detect Troubled Youth† everyday moral dilemmas such as stealing, cheating, and lying are used to challenge the ethics of each subject. Each moral dilemma contains three solutions; each solution is based on either a â€Å"Caring†, â€Å"Judgmental†, or â€Å"Self-Centered† perspective (Alicia McDermott 2008). In 1992, 80% of the juvenile population was white and 15% was black. White juveniles, however, were involved in 65% of the delinquency cases handled by juvenile courts. Black juveniles were involved in 31% of delinquency cases 27%of property offense cases and 40% of person offense cases (Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention,1992). Work Cited Wikipedia Juvenile delinquency as a male phenomenon, 2008. Retrieved on November 18, 2008 from: Explained gender differences in juvenile delinquency. Wikipedia Strain theory, 2008. Retrieved on November 18, 2008 from: Explained the class differences in juvenile delinquency. Alicia McDermott Ethics and Teens: Is It Possible to Detect Troubled Youth?,2008. Retrieved on November 17, 2008 from: Explained how one could detect ethics in teens. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Delinquency Cases in Juvenile Court, 1992.Retrivied on November 17, 2008 from: Explained the race percentage in juvenile delinquency. Research Papers on Juvenile Delinquency and CorrectionsThe Relationship Between Delinquency and Drug UseEffects of Television Violence on ChildrenStandardized TestingInfluences of Socio-Economic Status of Married MalesRelationship between Media Coverage and Social andResearch Process Part OneThree Concepts of PsychodynamicHip-Hop is ArtThe Effects of Illegal ImmigrationOpen Architechture a white paper

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Who in your life has been your biggest influence and why Scholarship Essay

Who in your life has been your biggest influence and why - Scholarship Essay Example He motivated me by reminding the real value of education by reminding me thus, â€Å"Dream of going to college is attainable if you put hard work to achieve.† Not only the words but also his deeds proved me what he said is true and genuine. As I am the eldest of 6 brothers, and having the responsibility of looking after them, naturally I thought I may not have the proper chances of pursuing my education. Fortunately, I was the first grandchild who had the chance to go to college and I have never been in trouble at school out of 12 years. I could also obtain A/B Honor roll during my education career with the unique support from my father. My father’s hardworking mentality after divorce to provide us the stable living situations is another factor that influenced me greatly. He goes to work 6 days a week to support all of us. The way he helped the neighbors and even the strangers in need has put a drive in me to help my fellowman whenever I can. Now I have realized that in fluence is the power to have an important effect on someone or something. And I feel the power in me through the magnificent influence of my father who has provided me a lot and made me what I am

Monday, February 10, 2020

Carrefour Company Analysis Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Carrefour Company Analysis - Assignment Example Cost leadership strategy focuses on the supply side of an enterprise and comprises of an integrated set of actions taken to produce goods or services with features that are acceptable to customers at the lowest possible cost in the market. Product differentiation alternatively creates a perception in customers’ minds that specific brands are unique and have superior qualities with respect to the image, reputation, reliability, designs, and quality compared to the similar other products in the market (Baroto et al., 2012). Niche markets are the narrow market segments having specific demands that are isolated due to geographic location or socio-economic factors. The principal risk factors in the retail industry are categorized as follows; 1) business environment: Political and social environment, Economic environment and market volatility, Environment, pressure and regulatory changes, Changes in the sector and the competitive Environment, Natural disasters and climate change, Terrorism and crime 2) strategy and governance: Strategy definition, adjustment and implementation, Compliance and fair practices, Corporate responsibility, Environment, Disputes/Litigation 3) operations: Relevance and performance of economic and business models, Operational and financial control of growth and expansion, Partnerships and franchising, Control of the supply chain, Product quality, compliance and safety, Safety of people and property, Human resource management, Continuity, integrity and confidentiality of information systems and Control and valuation of assets and 4) financial: Market risk, Liquidity risk, Interest-rate risk, Foreign-exchange risk, Equity risk, Quality of financial management, budgets and reporting and Credit risk. Specific business strategies have been articulated and designed to remain the long-term profitability of the company while successfully managing these risk factors.

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Soft Drinks India Essay Example for Free

Soft Drinks India Essay According to the ‘Product Insights: Soft Drinks in India’ report, The global soft drinks market grew at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 3. 45% from 2005 to 2009 and was valued at $494. 5 billion in 2009. New product launches in the global soft drinks market increased by 8. 59% in 2009. The US was the top country by retail sales as well as by number of new product launches, followed by Japan which ranked second in both categories. Globally, India ranked 25th in terms of retail sales and 13th in terms of the number of new product launches in the soft drinks market in 2009. In spite of India’s huge population and the fact that around 47% of the population is composed of persons below 30 years of age, the per-capita consumption of soft drinks in India remains very low, at approximately at 5. 2 liters against the world average of nearly 85. 22 liters. Developed countries such as the US, Germany, Italy and Spain all have per-capita consumption in the range of 280-400 liters, showcasing the huge potential for market growth in India. Coca-Cola remains the market leader in the carbonates category with a market share of more than 60% in the Indian market, followed by Pepsi with around 35%. In the bottled water category, Parle’s Bisleri and Kinley from Coca-Cola are the leading players. The packaged juices market in India continues to be dominated by Maaza and Frooti, followed by brands such as Slice, Tropicana and Real which have registered good growths in their market shares in the past few years. Red Bull with its strong dominance of the energy drinks’ category, which is the largest segment in the functional drinks category, is the market leader in the functional drinks market. Considering the overall development of the Indian soft drinks market, a comparison can be drawn between various soft drink categories based on the major consumer segment for each category using age and economic status as the two judging criterion. For instance, while carbonates are consumed by consumers from almost all economic segments and ages in the India, considering the various packaging sizes and price points for these products, segments such as energy drinks and sports drinks are mainly consumed in the age group of around 24 years who are on the higher side in terms of economic status, i.e. working executives and the affluent class. Based on these trends, a comparison chart can be drawn between the different soft drink categories in India as given below: 60 years Juices 40 years Carbonate Nutraceutic al Drinks Carbonate X-Axis: Consumer Economic Segment Y-Axis: Consumer Age Group Juices 24 years Carbonate 15 years Middle Working Executives/Upper Middle Class Energy Drinks and Sports Drinks Affluent. Current Situation: According to the ‘Product Insights: Soft Drinks in India’ report from Datamonitor, With improving literacy rates, consumers have become increasingly aware of health and fitnessrelated issues. Additionally, due to greater disposable incomes, particularly in urban areas, consumers are seeking healthier beverages even if they are relatively more expensive, due to their positioning. Raising awareness levels with regard to obesity and other weight related health issues in the last decade, especially amongst teenagers and young adults, has helped push sales of non-carbonates. Sales of noncarbonated drinks also got a boost from the pesticide controversy which led some consumers to switch loyalties from carbonates to juices, functional drinks etc. Products such as Juice are now fast becoming as an essential part of breakfast table with urban families. Leading beverage corporations such as Cocacola and PepsiCo have identified this trend and are adopting strategies to benefit from this development. Previously, product strategy of these large corporations was largely Cola based; given that a large part of their product volumes would come from the carbonates segment. However, in the last few years, with the strong growth in the non-carbonate sector and tapering of growth within the cola segment companies such as PepsiCo have announced plans of moving towards a well diversified portfolio by increasing the volume share of other soft drink segments including juices, functional drinks and other products with health benefits etc. This is evident from the strong marketing campaigns which preceded the launch of brands such as Tropicana and Minute Maid. Growing consumer awareness about the harmful effects of artificial ingredients in food and beverages has fueled the demand for ‘natural’ or ‘free from’ products over the last few years. According to Datamonitor’s latest consumer survey, 62% of respondents globally are influenced by the claims of ‘no artificial additives including colors, flavorings and preservatives’ when making food and beverage choices. The survey further reveals that the ‘natural/organic’ claim influences the major proportion of consumers in developing countries like Brazil and China, and a significant proportion in developed economies like the US and the UK. In line with the trends as reflected in the report, several new brands such as Nimbooz, Minute Maid Nimbu Fresh, and Cocojal (from Jain Agro) have been launched in the past few years in the Indian market. These recent entrants have used the ‘natural’ claim to market their product with consumers, with products being modeled on traditional Indian drinks. For instance, Nimbooz is based on the traditional lemon drink consumed in homes and the ads reflect the natural flavors and the ‘homemade like’ taste of the product. Product Launches/Marketing Strategies: As per the ‘Product Insights: Soft Drinks in India’ report from Datamonitor, US, followed by Japan were the top countries in terms of new product launches as well as by market value. India was ranked 13th by new product launches and 25th by market value. India had the third highest percentage growth (11%) in global soft drinks market in 2009 in terms of value. The figure below depicts the top 10 countries based on number of new products launched in the soft drinks market in 2009. Figure 1: 2009 20% 18% 16% 14% 12% % contribution 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 0% Top 10 countries based on number of new soft drinks product launches, Rank 1 Rank 2 Rank 3 Rank 4 Rank 5 Rank 6 Rank 7 Rank 8 Rank 9 Rank 10 US Japan China UK Germany Russia France Canada Italy Brazil Rank 13 India Source: Datamonitor’s Product Launch Analytics DATAMONITOR In addition to health related product launches, manufacturers are also using innovative marketing strategies to reach out to a larger consumer base. For example, Real juices used Disney characters for the promotion of its fruit juices amongst school going kids. Booster Juice, an international company which manufactures smoothies has used an innovative marketing initiative by signing the only Indian ‘Ultraman’ athlete (Ultraman is a title conferred for completion of a combination of high endurance athletic events such as long-distance triathlon etc. ), Anu Vaidyanathan as its brand ambassador for its smoothies promoting the importance of nutrition and fitness through its brands. Similarly, Dabur has signed Zaheer Khan, a leading Indian cricketer as the brand ambassador for its energy drink brand, Dabur Glucose. Coca-Cola in its recent Ad campaign used a traditional Indian art form, Warli to capture the mood of the festive season of Diwali. It also has several marketing initiatives such as offers of free home trips to participants from any part of the country etc. Considering that the soft drinks sector in India is seasonal and sales pick up a bit after during the festive season, most players in the market are actively campaigning to capture this demand. On-Trade: Apart from the retail market, foodservice or on-trade sector appears to be another lucrative avenue for manufacturers to cash in on the growing demand for soft drinks in India. Segments such as carbonates, energy drinks, bottled water etc. already enjoy a high share from the on-trade segment. However, for categories such as juice, which is in its nascent stage in the country, the on-trade sector promises a huge potential for growth. The juice bar model is similar to the cafe outlets such as Barista and Coffee Day chains and these enterprises aim to replicate the success of the latter to provide a healthier alternative. Figure consciousness being the latest fad, these juice bars appears to be the ideal place to visit after a grueling work-out at the gym for students and executives. This model is already a big hit in the western markets with players such as ‘Jamba Juice’ and ‘Smoothie King’ garnering good volumes in the US market. Currently, places with large footfalls such as shopping malls, office complexes and convention centers have juice bar joints in India. Apart from these, there are a few independent juice bar chains that are coming up in different parts of the country. Retail outlets such as ‘Amorettos’ in Delhi, ‘HAS Juice bar’ in Mumbai and ‘Bloom Juices’ in Mohali and multinational chains such as ‘New Zealand Naturals’ fall under the juice bar category. Apart from offering the regular fresh fruit juices, these outlets also offer exotic options such as ‘Fresh Wheat Grass’, ‘Fat Free Smoothies’ and ayurvedic herb based natural fruit juices in their menu. The benefits with each of these different juices are clearly explained so that the customers have greater awareness about the ideal juices for themselves. Similarly, other categories such as RTD teas, coffees etc. can be a hit with consumers in the on-trade sector. While the foodservice establishments offer the advantage of more information and hygienic conditions they are still far behind when it comes to price competition with the unorganized sector outlets such as road side juice shops. The price in these outlets as compared to the unorganized sector for a product like juice is higher by 3-4 times. This becomes a critical factor for the success amongst the price conscious Indian consumers. This sector has to come up with initiatives which increase awareness levels amongst consumers regarding the health benefits etc. offered through their products in order to gain acceptance in the Indian market. ENDS – This is based on Datamonitor’s analysis and inputs from Datamonitor’s latest report ‘Soft drinks in India. ’ For further information on this title, please contact Aartee Sundheep on +91 40 6672 9586 or [emailprotected] com.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Commentary on My Writing :: Papers

Commentary on My Writing The text I have written is a letter to a writer in the tabloid newspaper "The Sun". This text is written in a style aimed at an older reader who is qiute educated with the age varying from 30-50 years of age, or a perosn who has similar opioions on some tabloid newspaper articles as the person I have presented myself as. Unlike my first piece, my second piece entitled "extracts from moments in time" is not opinionated, although the sublect is the same, both pieces are presented very differently with the content, audience and purpose in mind. I chose the topic of how the media intrudes on the lives of celebrities, and both texts explore this subject. The second text is in an autobiography style, which explores the feelings of a celebrity on a personal level. This piece is aimed at people from the age of 18-30, because it involves some issues that I feel some people of that age might be able to relate to. To begin with I will look at my first piece. My first piece is highly influenced by one of my inspirational pieces and in it I have included as one of the main topics of arguement quotes form that piece. The formality of this piece is very formal, this is shown by the layout of the letter and the inclusion of of a return address in the top right hand corner. I have used standard english in this peice, which is also another reason for why it is aimed at qiute an educated reader. I have also included some complex syntax which a younger or less educated redaree might find difficult to understand: " I believe that you Sir do not respect many people, or maybe you're acknowledgement of the pain you cause runs so thin that you do not have any idea why I am writing to you, and in such a tone as the one I carry." The use of the complex sentence used above also emphasis's the writers feelings and what is being said.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Indigenous Knowledge Amd Essay

Pedagogy in First Nations Education A Literature Review with Recommendations. ’’ Marie Battiste, director of the Apamuwek Institute, in partnership with the Canadian Government has made a research conducting a literature review on indigenous knowledge. The author writes about the challenges that such a research implies. For example, the record of educational knowledge for indigenous people is not necessarily done through books as with the European knowledge system. Throughout the years, the rights of indigenous knowledge in the educational system under the constitutional Act of 1982 section 35 and 52 (p. 13) was not always respected. Her goal s to ensure that the right information about indigenous knowledge is integrated into classrooms. To achieve it, Battiste proposes three approaches. The first one would be to clarify insights into the tensions between Indigenous people and European ways of knowing. The second approach is on innovating program to help understand the challenges of Native People. The third part is based on the Author’s research and the Ministry recommendations in improving First Nations education. Marie Battiste suggests to focus on ‘’ Similarities between the two systems of knowledge ather than on their differences’’ as a start to introduce educational reform. (p. 11). Reference: Battiste. M. (2002) Indigenous Knowledge and Pedagogy in First Nations Education

Monday, January 6, 2020

Robots Is Not So Foreign - 950 Words

The concept of robots in our military is not so foreign. We currently have a variety of types including drone planes and bomb detecting robots. There are several reasons why robots of these types are a benefit to the soldiers on the ground in places like Iraq and Afghanistan. These innovations keep our fighting force away from many dangerous events. However, the military seems to be leaning toward a world where the infantry will be totally comprised of machines-an â€Å"unsympathetic† robot killing force. The argument is that these robots will have no hesitation to kill, making the human soldier obsolete. These robots also require no training or housing. Even though robots will kill without question and cost less overall, robots will not benefit war times because they take away our military’s heart and soul, they eliminate the humanitarian effort, and their programming can be unpredictable. Primarily, a robot infantry takes away the greatest part of our country’s fighting force, the people’s heart and soul. There is something special about the men and women who join our military. This goes as far back as the first members of the first military units. The pride our citizens have always felt for their country causes them to join for so many reasons. Maybe they want to be part of something bigger, or they are following in their father’s footsteps. After 9-11, our country had a huge surge of people enlist to fight for what they believed was a wrong doing to the UnitedShow MoreRelatedNotes On Forex Trading Software851 Words   |  4 Pagesdifferent in this regard. At least theoretically it s a level playing field. All traders have equal access to market information. What s left for the traders then is to analyze that information, come to a trading decision and start making money. So try to comprehend the development that took place through years. 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